Home > Biological Detection > Technology > Molecular > Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification is generally regarded as the most sensitive and specific means of detecting potential bio warfare pathogens. Results can usually be obtained in about an hour, including a separate sample preparation step to manually extract DNA signatures prior to PCR analysis. Well-characterized COTS DNA extraction kits are available for rapid extraction (20 to 30 minutes) of target DNA from a variety of complex liquid and solid matrices including food, water, and tissue. Samples are prepared by the end user and the instrument performs PCR amplification of the target sequences. Thermal cycling produces additional copies of target sequences, and the fluorescent levels in the reaction change as additional copies are produced. During thermal cycling, the instrument detects copies of the target sequences by measuring changes in fluorescence.

A major disadvantage of nucleic acid-based detection devices is their inability to directly detect non-nucleic acid targets such as toxins. However, toxins may be indirectly detected via the presence of residual DNA fragments of the organism used to produce the toxin. Residual DNA fragments from the organism used to produce a toxin are typically present at low levels even in the purest of toxin preparations, and fragments are most likely present in higher concentrations in crude preparations.

Manufacturer
Agilent Technologies (1)
BioMerieux (2)
BioRad (1)
Cepheid (2)
Chemring Detection Systems (1)
Pathogenica (1)
PositiveID/MicroFluidic Systems (3)
Roche Diagnostics Corporation (1)
Veredus Laboratories (1)
Transportability
Person-Portable (6)
Mounted (1)
Benchtop/Fixed (3)
Unit Cost
$20,000 - $50,000 (7)
> $100,000 (1)
N/A (5)
Sample Introduction
Solid (1)
Liquid (8)
Sensitivity / Detection Limit
cfu/mL (1)
ng (2)
Other (4)
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ABSS (ATHINA Biological Security System)

ABSS (ATHINA Biological Security System)

Chemring Detection Systems

The ABSS (ATHINA Biological Security System) is an integrated solution for biological security missi...

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CFX96 Touch

CFX96 Touch

BioRad

The Bio-Rad CFX96 Touch is a thermocycler paired together with an optics device for real-time PCR an...

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DragonFly

DragonFly

PositiveID/MicroFluidic Systems

The MicroFluidic System branch of PositiveID has developed a series of cartridges for biological sam...

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FilmArray

FilmArray

BioMerieux

The FilmArray integrates sample preparation, amplification, detection, and analysis into one system ...

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Firefly Dx

Firefly Dx

PositiveID/MicroFluidic Systems

The Firefly Dx system combines sample lysis, purification, PCR analysis, and the identification for ...

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GeneXpert

GeneXpert

Cepheid

The GeneXpert® utilizes disposable cartridges to move a sample through the preparation and analysis ...

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HAI BioDetection System

HAI BioDetection System

Pathogenica

Pathogenica’s real-time BioSurveillance and BioDetection system detects high resolution fingerprint ...

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LightCycler Real-Time PCR System

LightCycler Real-Time PCR System

Roche Diagnostics Corporation

Thermocycling is performed with heated air and glass capillaries in most models, allowing for quick ...

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M-BAND

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PositiveID/MicroFluidic Systems

The Microfluidics-based Bioagent Networked Detector (M-BAND) developed by MicroFluidic Systems (MFS)...

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Mx3000P Realtime PCR

Mx3000P Realtime PCR

Agilent Technologies

The device is a real-time PCR instrument that utilizes a heatblock thermocycler. The excitation/anal...

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RAZOR EX

RAZOR EX

BioMerieux

Real time, stand-alone, battery operated thermocycler with built in analysis and detection software....

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SmartCycler

SmartCycler

Cepheid

The SmartCycler is a real-time PCR instrument with 16 independently controlled reaction sites. The i...

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VereThreat Chip/VereID Biosystem

VereThreat Chip/VereID Biosystem

Veredus Laboratories

VereThreat is a Lab-on-Chip application that can detect, differentiate, and identify major biologica...

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